Welcome toThe Rothschild Archive'swebsite

Sources for business history: catalogues of bank files

Sources for art history: Catalogue of the pictures of Alfred de Rothschild 1901

Sources for yachting history: Plans for Nathaniel von Rothschild's yacht Veglia 1905

Sources for natural history: Walter 2nd Lord Rothschild and his zebra carriage: c.1910

Sources for global financial history: Map of lines of the Brazil Railway Company: c.1920

Sources for business history: index cards to bank files

Sources for social history: Rothschild Hospital Paris: 1920s

Sources for business history: detail of a Rothschild bond coupon

Sources for architectural history: Halton House: 1890s

Sources for the history of travel: Lionel de Rothschild's tours of Spain: 1909

Sources for local history: Tring Park: c.1900

Sources for Royal history: shooting party with Edward Prince of Wales: 1893

Sources for political history: Lionel de Rothschild: first Jewish MP: 1858

Sources for sporting history: St Amant winner of the Derby: 1904

Sources for local history: gardeners at Aston Clinton: 1899

Sources for Rothschild family history: Lionel de Rothschild's yacht Rhodora: 1927

Sources for London history: entrance to New Court: 1965

Sources for design history: plans for Lionel de Rothschild's Rolls-Royce: 1930

Sources for business history: Rothschild gold bars produced by the Royal Mint Refinery: 1930s

Sources for business history: letters of August Belmont Rothschild Agent in New York: 1860s

The Royal Mint Refinery

The history of gold trading would be incomplete without the Rothschilds; and the history of the Rothschilds would be very different without gold. For 200 years, the trading, refining and mining of gold have been important activities for the business.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777-1836) first began to deal in bullion in 1809. In 1815, the Rothschild brothers famously supplied gold to the Duke of Wellington to enable the payment of the troops in Belgium in the days leading up to the Battle of Waterloo. In late 1825, the Rothschilds averted a financial crisis by supplying a large volume of gold to the Bank of England. 

The Rothschilds’ interests in refining can be traced to 1827, when James de Rothschild (1792-1868) began operating his own refinery in Paris. In 1848 a Royal Commission charged with examining the efficiency of the British Royal Mint recommended the separation of the twin roles of refining and coin striking. A recommendation of the Commission was that a refinery be leased to an external agency of the Royal Mint. The opportunity to manage a refinery in England was enthusiastically seized by Anthony de Rothschild (1810-1876), the second son of Nathan. On 26 January 1852 he wrote from New Court to the Deputy Master of the Mint:

“I request you will have the goodness to inform the Master of the Mint that I am ready to execute the Lease for the Refinery, and I should be obliged to you to let me know when you receive the confirmation of the Chancellor of the Exchequer to the conditions of the Lease, in order that the documents relative to it may be completed.”

On 3 February the lease of the buildings and equipment was sanctioned by Her Majesty’s Treasury and the Royal Mint Refinery became part of the London business’s interests. The family retained the lease on the Royal Mint Refinery for well over a century. The Royal Mint Refinery played a leading role in refining the world’s gold output and the acquisition was particularly timely as new discoveries of Californian and Australian gold brought a flood of new supplies of gold to London in the 1850s. Gold bars refined by Rothschild and stamped with the Rothschild name remain very popular among collectors.

Parliamentary papers relating to the grant of a lease of the Refinery at the Mint to Sir Anthony de Rothschild 1852

Parliamentary papers relating to the grant of a lease of the Refinery at the Mint to Sir Anthony de Rothschild 1852

Gold bar stamped with the Rothschild refinery mark 1933

Gold bar stamped with the Rothschild refinery mark 1933