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Sources for business history

Sources for art history: Catalogue of the pictures of Alfred de Rothschild 1901

Sources for yachting history: Plans for Nathaniel von Rothschild's yacht Veglia 1905

Sources for natural history: Walter 2nd Lord Rothschild and his zebra carriage: c.1910

Sources for global financial history: Map of lines of the Brazil Railway Company: c.1920

Sources for business history: index cards to bank files

Sources for social history: Rothschild Hospital Paris: 1920s

Sources for business history: detail of a Rothschild bond coupon

Sources for architectural history: Halton House: 1890s

Sources for the history of travel: Lionel de Rothschild's tours of Spain: 1909

Sources for local history: Tring Park: c.1900

Sources for Royal history: shooting party with Edward Prince of Wales: 1893

Sources for political history: Lionel de Rothschild: first Jewish MP: 1858

Sources for sporting history: St Amant winner of the Derby: 1904

Sources for local history: gardeners at Aston Clinton: 1899

Sources for Rothschild family history: Lionel de Rothschild's yacht Rhodora: 1927

Sources for London history: entrance to New Court: 1965

Sources for design history: plans for Lionel de Rothschild's Rolls-Royce: 1930

Sources for business history: Rothschild gold bars produced by the Royal Mint Refinery: 1930s

Sources for business history: letters of August Belmont Rothschild Agent in New York: 1860s

Letters Patent of Denization for Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1804

The collections of The Rothschild Archive London contain over two million pieces of paper, volumes, files, photographs, artefacts and art works. Archivist's Choice is a series a short articles each highlighting a treasure from the Archive collection, or celebrating an anniversary or special event. Browse through our library of Archivist's Choice articles to discover some of the fascinating stories behind our collections.

In this Choice, we look back to the efforts of Nathan Mayer Rothschild to secure residency rights in England at the turn of the nineteenth century.

The arrival of Nathan Mayer Rothschild in England

Nathan Mayer Rothschild (1777-1836) was a complicated personality. An ambitious man, his determination and drive made him sometimes impatient of others, but his inventiveness meant that he was constantly looking forward to new opportunities. The young Rothschild, the first of his generation to leave the confines of the Frankfurt ghetto, arrived in Manchester in May 1799, after spending several months in London gaining experience of English trading methods. He arrived with capital of around £20,000 (over £1.5m today), part of his father’s attempt to consolidate and extend the family’s trade in English printed textiles. Nathan was accompanied by his father's chief bookkeeper, Siegmund Geisenheimer, and he opened a warehouse in Brown Street, in the commercial heart of the city, and rented a villa in Downing Street, Ardwick, then a fashionable residential suburb. From these bases he began to make his economic mark in a city bursting with entrepreneurial energy, establishing his firm N M Rothschild. In 1806, Nathan married Hannah (1783-1850), daughter of the London merchant Levi Barent Cohen, giving him a position in society and access to influential contacts. Following the death of his father-in-law, Nathan moved to London, taking premises at New Court, St Swithin’s Lane and established his finance house dealing in bullion and foreign exchange.

Migrant traders and the economic development of Manchester

The Rothschilds were not alone in their ambition to tap into Manchester's production of cotton textiles as the city rapidly expanded during the 1780s and 1790s under the impact of newly invented mechanical devices for spinning and printing. Nathan was one of a number of German merchants who opened warehouses in central Manchester at the turn of the eighteenth century to buy in and export Manchester goods. Like most of the others, he knew little English, had few, if any, local connections beyond the English agents he had come across in his native Frankfurt, and no knowledge of a town already becoming legendary as 'the shock city of the age'. However, his character and determination was to be his strength. Of the tens of thousands of 'immigrants' who had flocked into the city in the late 18th century, perhaps fifteen or twenty were from families of Jewish origin. It was probably in 1788 that a group of Jewish pedlars and shopkeepers of German and Polish origin moved on from Liverpool, to a city which seemed more likely to reward their retail enterprise. Settling closely together in cheaper property in the Old Town, they opened small shops specialising in readily saleable commodities as old clothes, cheap jewellery, pens, pencils, umbrellas, optical lenses and often spurious medicines. With immense energy and versatility, these pioneer Jewish traders found a niche in Manchester's growing market for their cheap goods and for services including pawnbroking, and laid the basis of a Jewish communal life. By the time of Nathan's arrival, there existed at least the rudiments of a coherent and religiously observant community.


Jews born in England, while not receiving the same privileges of citizenship as Englishmen, were protected under English law, and were no worse off than Catholics or Dissenters.  Foreign born Jews, however, in certain conditions, could, after 1740, place themselves without the taking of the Sacrament in the same category by becoming denizens, the then equivalent of naturalization.  This was an expensive affair, and for this purpose several persons usually clubbed together. 

Denization dates back to the 13th century, by which an alien (foreigner), through letters patent, became a denizen, thereby obtaining certain rights otherwise normally enjoyed only by the King's (or Queen's) subjects, including the right to hold land. The denizen was neither a subject (with citizenship or nationality) nor an alien, but had a status akin to permanent residency today. While one could become a subject via naturalisation, this required a private act of Parliament; in contrast, denization was cheaper, quicker, and simpler. Denization fell into obsolescence when the British Nationality and Status of Aliens Act 1914 simplified the naturalisation process. Denization occurred by a grant of letters patent, an exercise of the royal prerogative. Denizens paid a fee and took an oath of allegiance to the crown. The status of denizen allowed a foreigner to purchase property, although a denizen could not inherit property. Sir William Blackstone wrote "A denizen is a kind of middle state, between an alien and a natural-born subject, and partakes of both." The denizen had limited political rights: he could vote, but could not be a member of parliament or hold any civil or military office of trust. The last denization was granted to the Dutch painter Lawrence Alma-Tadema in 1873.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild’s application for denization

While the Napoleonic wars raged in Europe, Nathan was anxious to secure residency rights in England, and wrote to business contacts for advice on the best method. In his signed application (now in The National Archives) dated 16 May 1804, Nathan states that he “has resided for three years last Past in that Part of the Kingdom of Great Britain called England and being an alien born is desirous to settle in the said Kingdom ... to which he has removed his effects”. Nathan's cautious statement of the length of time he had been in the country probably reflects the period of transition during which he was still travelling to and from Frankfurt. Further evidence of Nathan’s application can be found in the 'Aliens entry book', also in The National Archives.

Nathan's denization was granted by the Crown, on payment of a fee, in the form of Royal Letters Patent. The Letters Patent of Denization (in the collection of The Rothschild Archive) were granted on 20 June 1804. The document records his name at the end of a list of seven individuals: Gottlieb Wolf, from Wurtemburg, Simon Levin, from Konisburg,  Roderick Willink, from Altona, Natan Ben Rindskopf  [a cousin of Nathan’s], from Frankfurt, Charles Frederick Straubert [all from London],  Solomon Oppenheimer, from Prussia, and Nathan Mayer Rothschild, from Frankfurt, [both from Manchester].

Nathan’s foresight in acquiring denizenship was to provide a firm foundation to put him in a position to marry well, to provide security for his yet unborn children, and upon which to build his business in Manchester and then in London.

RAL 000/306/1               

Letters Patent of Denization for Nathan Mayer Rothschild

Letters Patent of Denization for Nathan Mayer Rothschild

Detail of Letters Patent of Denization for Nathan Mayer Rothschild

Detail of Letters Patent of Denization for Nathan Mayer Rothschild